By Maria L. La Ganga and Tina Susman. Washington Post. This also relates back to the realistic (real-world) scenarios that would help officers prepare for varying encounter characteristics. Stickle, B. (2016). But authorities in Minneapolis – including former Minneapolis Police Chief Janee Harteau – were quick to say the shooting shouldn't have happened. They also call into question police legitimacy. Use of force policy has been an ongoing national issue, as high-profile cases of officer-involved shootings are being increasingly reported. There could be several issues occurring here, such as not enough training, poor quality training, or omission of certain types of training (Phillips, 2015). 19 June 2017: During the Venezuelan protests, 17-year-old Fabián Urbina was killed by a National Guardsman who fired live ammunition at protesters, wounding at least four others. These include details such as date and time of incident, reason for contact, age, sex, race, ethnicity of subject and officer, injuries, type of force used, etc. This would suggest that the types of devices used in force training (chemical sprays, CED-devices, etc.) When police must use deadly force, whites are more likely to be killed than blacks. Although this does not directly address the problems that arise from use of force and excessive force, it is a step in the right direction in order to be able to further research and analyze this phenomenon. Here are 15 use-of-force cases that every department and elected official must know, understand, use, and preach. In the United States, use of deadly force by police has been a high-profile and contentious issue. National Institute of Justice. 2016). However, unless more research is done in relation to the “Blue Wall” and use of force, we cannot make any causal statements regarding the blue wall and use of force. Positive findings by Taylor et al. Factors including the type of training and encounter characteristics appear to be the most correlated with decisions of use of force (Bolger, 2015; Stickle, 2016; Terrill, et al. Police Shootings 2015. Taylor, B. Ph.D., Woods, D., Kubu, B., Koper, C. Ph.D., Tegeler, B., Cheney, J., Martinez, M., Cronin, J., Kappelman, K. (2009). The research findings appear beneficial, but have some mixed results on the effectiveness of use of force training. Other efforts such as the use of force continuum also can be beneficial, but again it depends on the quality of the continuum (Bolger, 2015). In addition, in future use of force policy design, some modifications regarding the type of training, quality of training, and focus of the training should occur. Since the deinstitutionalization of mental health facilities, police have had increasing interactions with people suffering from mental illness. In 1989, Graham v. Connor set the stage for the essential use of force rubric. (2011). Final Technical Report Draft: Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes. Garner, 471 U. S. 1 (1985) , the Court addressed the constitutionality of the police using force that can be deadly. Police Use of Force. Therefore, when an officer is wearing a body camera, they are less likely to use excessive force because they know they are under “supervision”. As discussed earlier, the FBI recently began implementing a use of force collection database that collects national data on use of force incidents. This strained relationship has become apparent in recent decades, as the number of high-profile incidents of police use of force reported in the news has increased. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/231176.pdf, Phillips, S. W. (2015). According to Andersen (2016), by training officers more effectively in navigating different encounter characteristics, we may minimize the chance of an officer deciding to use more force than necessary. Shooting skills and defensive tactics are critical for officer safety. In many cases, these officers are not trained in how to interact with these individuals, which increases the risk for an officer-involved injury. The officer’s own police agency usually conducts the … (2016) found that the use of realistic (real-world) scenarios produced positive benefits in officer performance. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(1), 187-191. doi:10.1111/1745-9133.12192, Smith, R. M., Kaminski J. R., Alpert, P. G., Fridell, A. L., MacDonald, J., Kubu, B. In 2019, 1,004 people were shot and killed by police according to The Washington Post, whereas the "Mapping Police Violence" project counted 1,098 killed. Garner (1985) and Graham v. Connor (1989) addressing police officers' use of deadly force. HARTFORD, Conn. (AP) — Police officers' use of deadly force was justified in four separate cases dating as far back as 2008, a Connecticut state prosecutor for the Hartford area said Friday. With more data, we may conduct more research. Although use of force has existed in policing since its inception, it was not until this profession became more formalized that use of force policy also became more prevalent (Atherley, 2014). Strain has always existed between racial minorities and authoritative majorities. However, looking through a Routine Activities lens, the officer would need a suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian. The specific problem that use of force policy seeks to address is the increases in incidents of officer-involved injuries/deaths (excessive force). This is not surprising in that these are the obvious factors that officers must take into account when deciding to use force. Here are several cases that generated controversy, sometimes protests and sometimes independent investigations, including by the Justice Department. Police departments adopt use of force policies and employ use of force continuums without fully understanding use of force. In this case, the police culture is pervasive and can be damaging to the department. Therefore, it may have more incidents of use of force. Although the need for a national reporting system was discussed briefly by Koper (2016), the FBI was a step ahead of him and already began the implementation process. It is also the notion that officers will protect other officers. Any policy can be a great, but if it is not implemented correctly, then it can never be effective. The components of the policy aspect consist of the guidelines that are meant to be followed in interactions involving use of force. She was sentenced to three years imprisonment. The Court further stated, "...officers could have used some reasonable level of force to try to prevent Lukus from taking a suicidal act. These realistic scenarios involved real actors playing the role of the distressed individual and the police officer must navigate the interaction to a successful outcome. Therefore, future research should focus on encounter characteristics and on training officers in dealing with those different encounter characteristics. The research on this subject has been mixed and has shown some training techniques to be more effective than others. This can create a host of problems related to policy, training, and implementation, if no one truly knows how to define the concept. 1. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov/use-of force. Garner held that the use of deadly force to apprehend a suspect was only justified in limited circumstances, such as where (1) the officer reasonably believed the suspect posed an immediate threat of harm to the officer or others, (2) the force was used to … Research conducted by Terrill et al (2011) found that 80% of 1,083 of departments surveyed reported using some type of use of force continuum in their policy. The target population of the policy is police officers. These scenarios are more “real-to-life” than the standard video training scenarios. Graham v. Connor — This is the essential use of force rubric in the country. This is why training and understanding the philosophy of use of force and how use of force interactions effect the public and police departments are crucial to effective policy. Advancing Research and Accountability on Police Use of Deadly Force. Therefore, more research should focus on the use of non-lethal devices and use of force. Use of force is a key component of policing and one of the most controversial issues in law enforcement. (2014). Use of force policy was seen as a strategy to regulate the amount of force officers used when attempting to subdue an unwilling subject. Committee on the Administration of Justice, City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau, eye injury in the 2019–2020 Chilean protests, "The Siege of Tralee, November 1 – 9, 1920", Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: 1981, "Racist, barbaric incidnt leaves SA shellshocked", "Police beating in Philadelphia captured on videotape", "Remembering the 2000 Philadelphia RNC: Puppets, Police and The Rock – Philadelphia Magazine", "Top Italian policemen get up to five years for violent attack on G8 protesters. Incidents of excessive use of force strain police relationships with all citizens. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(3), 509-535. doi:10.1007/s10940-014-9236-3, Atherley, L. T., & Hickman, M. J. The in-class lectures involve understanding what use of force is, the philosophy behind it, and learning the general techniques and spectrum of use of force. However, it should be reiterated that although these techniques and types of training are beneficial, the quality of the training might differ depending on the department. Bolger’s (2015) research also suggests that the suspect’s characteristics impact an officer’s decision to use force. Overall, it appears that the encounter characteristics of the interaction have the most impact on an officer’s decision to use force. He found that those who were male, minorities, and lower class were more likely to have force used against them. The cold murder fields of Marikana", "Así marchó la oposición en Venezuela (Fotos)", "Comenzó juicio por el asesinato de Bassil Dacosta", "Falleció joven que fue herida con perdigones en el ojo", "White S.C. trooper pleads guilty in shooting of unarmed black man", "Former Independence cop gets four-year sentence for encounter that nearly killed teen driver", "Ex-Rocky Ford cop found guilty of murdering Jack Jacquez while on duty", "Jury finds Baltimore Police Officer Wesley Cagle guilty of assault in shooting of unarmed man", "Paradise Cop Who Took 11 Minutes To Report Shooting Found Guilty Of Involuntary Manslaughter", "Tulsa shooting: Family of man killed by police call for protests", "Terence Crutcher Shooting by Tulsa Police Was 'Tragic' but Justified: Jury Foreman", "Falleció estudiante en Caracas por impacto de bomba lacrimógena", "Una bomba lacrimógena presuntamente le habría causado la muerte a un joven en la avenida Libertador", "[EXCLUSIVO] Registramos cuando GNB le disparó a manifestantes en Altamira", "INDH presenta querella por joven que perdió un ojo por lacrimógena en año nuevo en Plaza Italia", "INDH se querella por lesión a profesor que perdió un ojo en Valparaíso", "Chauvin And 3 Former Officers Face New Charges Over George Floyd's Death", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cases_of_police_brutality&oldid=992240462, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1–9 November 1920: In revenge for the IRA's killing of two local policemen, Black and Tans, 19 May 1922: In revenge for the burning of a, 23 June 1922: A group of Ulster Special Constables opened fire on civilians in the village of, 21 March 1960. Nov. 16, 2014, 10:05 p.m. Analysis How the Supreme Court Enables Police Excessive Force In this edition of his Section 1983 Litigation column, Martin A. Schwartz writes: The … The type of department, quality of training, and context of the encounters are the most important factors in use of force decisions. The officer becomes an ineffective guardian as they become the likely offender, although low self-control seems to fit use of force policy and excessive force more easily. Research by Bolger (2015) suggests that the characteristics of the encounter and the potential target are most correlated with use of force decisions. 2 of 12 Photo by Brand X 5 Deadly Force Cases with Heavy Legal Consequences for the Good Guy. A department itself may be known for being “tough on crime” (both in the figurative and literal sense). Led by the FBI:UCR, a national use of force collection database is being established and is planned to begin operation this year. (2009) found, different departments had different approaches to use of force policy, and therefore varied in types of training and use of force philosophy. The DA’s office conducted an investigation into the officer’s use of force and announced Tuesday that it was justified under applicable Texas law governing when an … FBI:UCR. Although this directly effects minority citizens, it also effects everyone else. Specifically, interactions between police and racial minorities has been an ongoing struggle. Therefore, it may be important to look at specialized use of force training depending on the area the department is located. Although many police departments have implemented use of force policies and training, there is no universally applied curriculum of training. Read on to learn more. Overall, current research findings are helpful in guiding future use of force policy and reduce the likelihood of an officer-involved injury. As has been established, the policing culture is generally resistant to change. Police Practice & Research, 16(1), 51-64. doi:10.1080/15614263.2013.845942. More recently, efforts have been made to collect national data on use of force incidents to provide an aggregate picture of use of force. Learn how to educate your community about police use of force, the risks unarmed individuals pose, research on police shooting accuracy and commandments for cops after use of deadly force. Therefore, changing police culture would make addressing the problem that much harder. Therefore, police departments may have different types of training/techniques based on how they define use of force. Excessive use of force: The application of lawful use of force in too many separate incidents. Bolger (2015) and Andersen’s (2016) research would suggest that more training in use of force should involve understanding encounter and suspect characteristics. Ariel, B., Farrar, W., & Sutherland, A. For example, a police department may want to have specialized use of force training concerning the characteristics and context of the neighborhoods they serve. According to Ariel (2015), the likelihood of force being used significantly decreased when police officers were wearing body cameras. Another cause of the problem may be police culture. Characteristics such as seriousness of offense, resistance of suspect, force occurring during an arrest or during citizen conflict, or when more officers are present were most related to use of force decisions. This paper seeks to examine use of force policy and its impact on instances of excessive force. 22 July 2012: Alecia Thomas was kicked and punched by Los Angeles Police Department officer Mary O'Callaghan during an arrest, and later died in police custody. This involves training and understanding in behavior and negotiation-style tactics in order to de-escalate intense situations. Through training and education, police departments attempt to increase police officer and public safety while reducing potential injuries. While research findings have been promising in guiding policy, they are all affected by the context of the police department. The last cause, while not a direct cause, results in substantial public attention and scrutiny. According to Terrill et al (2011), many policies have tended to focus more on use of force training than anything else. The costs would mainly include the training for officers and the person administering the training, actors for real-world scenarios, and the cost of any equipment (e.g., non-lethal and lethal devices, books, paper, videos, and other supplies). Although not a surprising finding, it aids in guiding future use of force training techniques. As Gottfredson and Hirschi suggest, low self-control directly contributes to whether or not a person commits a crime. Journal of Law Enforcement, 5(4), 1- 13. The real-world exercises have shown more potential benefits, as they attempt to mirror real world situations and interactions that officers may encounter. How a news outlet reports on an officer-involved incident can have drastic effects on how that officer or police department is viewed by the public. To sum up, the case study research design is a comprehensive research strategy that allows the researcher of this study to rely on the two cases of use of deadly force by police and to explore the phenomena in a holistic way. South African police shot at a crowd of black anti-apartheid protesters, killing 69 and injuring over 180 in what became known as the, 13 July 1969: Catholic civilian Francis McCloskey (67) was beaten with batons by Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers during street disturbances in, 3 January 1998: Six policemen from the North East Rand Dog Unit set their, 9 May 2001: police fired tear gas and plastic bullets into crowds at the, 25 September 2005: 18-year-old Italian student, 5 October 2010: Danny Rodriguez, 29, was shot twice in the chest and killed by, 6 June 2011: 22-year-old Martin Neshkovski was beaten to death by Igor Spasov, a member of the special police unit Tigers, in the center of, 9 July 2011: The United Nations human rights office expressed disappointment on the use of excessive force, February 2012: Patricia Cook was fatally shot while in her SUV by. Incidents such as Michael Brown, Jeremy Mardis, Alton Sterling, and Walter Scott have called into question current use of force standards. Numerous other use of force cases would follow, all addressing different aspects of use of force: Tennessee v. Garner, Plakas v. Drinski, Thompson v. Hubbard, Bush v. City of Tallahassee, etc. The Honorab)e Maynard Jackson Mayor 0/ Atlanta "rhe rising incidence of police brutality is a cause for grave mutual concern. De-escalation training has also been a more recent addition to the curriculum. From a theoretical perspective, use of force policy can be explained using Routine Activities theory and Self-Control theory. From the Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam protests, and the War on Drugs, police-citizen relationships have gone from trust to mistrust and back again. ", "Ex-Phoenix officer pleads guilty to manslaughter in killing of unarmed man", "Marching Against Police Brutality in Macedonia", "Hundreds protest Macedonian beating death", "Malaysia: UN rights office voices concern about recent crackdown on protesters", "UN rights disappointed by Malaysian police crackdown", "Ex-Culpeper Police Officer Sentenced to 36 Months in Fatal Shooting", "LAPD Officer Found Guilty of Assault in Arrest of Woman Who Died In Police Custody", "The South African Police Service and the Public Order War", "The murder fields of Marikana. The goals of use of force policy are to reduce the number of officer-involved injuries or death and to reduce the use of excessive force. There, the Court held that “[w]here the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a threat of serious physical harm, either to the officer or to others, it is not constitutionally unreasonable to prevent escape by using deadly force.” This type of training included realistic scenarios such as suicidal, mentally-ill, or distressed suspect encounters. Andersen, J. P., Pitel, M., Weerasinghe, A., & Papazoglou, K. (2016). Police can use deadly force if they merely perceive a threat By German Lopez @germanrlopez Updated Nov 14, 2018, 4:12pm EST Share this story Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. This results in instances of police use of force that result in injury or death. Poor or inadequate training could also involve not being trained in interactions with certain types of people or for certain situations. A second aspect to the nature of the problem is that there is no universally agreed upon definition of use of force. Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes: Final Report to the National Institute of Justice. The case made headlines and three officers were accused of racism and excessive use of force, but they were cleared by police investigators and the chief prosecutor. Thomas emerged from his car, and Patrick Feaster, a, 7 June 2017: During the Venezuelan protests, 17-year-old Neomar Lander is killed after being shot directly with a tear gas canister fired by the. The research has shown mixed results in terms of how use of force policies influence the use of excessive force. As use of force became more of an issue, we began to see important decisions in use of force cases. National Institute of Justice. the nature of the use of deadly force by police. If that was the case, then Officer Kisela probably could not have stopped it without use of deadly force. This database could provide researchers with a substantial amount of use of force data. This may suggest that, in the lens of Routine Activities, the body camera may act as a capable guardian. Force may include physical force, lethal use … Based on the findings regarding chemical sprays and CED-devices, future research should examine more non-lethal options for police officers to use. Although these guidelines may differ depending on the department, they generally guide officers in how to approach, interact, de-escalate, and gain control over the situation. The case involved a Memphis police officer who shot and killed a teenager who jumped over a fence at night in the backyard of a house that the officer suspected was burglarized, though the officer was “reasonably sure” the suspect was unarmed. This may apply to officers who believe they are above the law or who believe that their badge protects them. Two US Supreme Court judgments are especially relevant to police use of force. Thus, we end up with strained relationships and actions seem impulsive. 2. The purpose of this paper was to examine use of force policy and how it may impact officer-involved injuries/deaths (excessive force). http://webs.wichita.edu/depttools/depttoolsmemberfiles/rcpi/Powerpoints/WSURCPI%20Police%20Citizen%20Rela.ppt, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/231176.pdf, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/237794.pdf. According to Stickle (2009) and Michael et al (2009), efforts such as increases in training and education are generally beneficial, but the content, quality, and duration of the training affects how beneficial the training is. National Institute of Justice. This paper seeks to examine use of force policy and its impact on instances of excessive force. 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